The Milk Revolution

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Percentage of adults that can digest lactose in the indigenous population of the Old World.
(This map is from the Wikipedia article referenced below.)

See the Wikipedia article Lactase persistence and the Nature paper Archaeology: The milk revolution by Andrew Curry, which recounts the remarkable historical story of a single mutation.

Quote: "When a single genetic mutation first let ancient Europeans drink milk, it set the stage for a continental upheaval."

— Andrew Curry

This single genetic mutation allowed people who had the mutated gene and their descendants to conquer Europe, as the archaeological evidence shows.

Significance

Questioning Mainstream Science
Objections to Evolution

Sometimes critics of Evolutionary Biology mount an argument based on Information Theory attempting to prove that mutations cannot be beneficial because they "cannot create new information". One well known critic (though he accepts a form of evolution) is Dr Lee Spetner, for example cited here.

The mutation that gave rise to adult lactose tolerance is significant because it shows that "no new information" can actually be beneficial. In this case it caused the body to lose its ability to switch off lactase production after childhood, which has been a great advantage to the descendants of the child(ren) in which the mutation arose. Clearly the effect of a mutation is to be judged by the results, not by information theory.